While a new location-based search has been available on Google for a while now, Google's only just outed it the Search Engine Land SMX event at Paris.
What happens? All you need to do is keep your location-based services (read: your GPS) on, let Google know where you are right now.
You could, for instance, ask the name of a building you're near or if a place is mapped out on Google Maps, ask Google for its phone number.
For Android, it works on its integrated search box, Chrome and Google Now while on iOS, you can test it out on Chrome and the Google Search app. It's something fun to try at the moment but it will be hit and miss for a bit, depending on where you are. Still, it's something handy for you to try especially when on vacation.